bt - Flexible Backtesting for Python

What is bt?

bt is a flexible backtesting framework for Python used to test quantitative trading strategies. Backtesting is the process of testing a strategy over a given data set. This framework allows you to easily create strategies that mix and match different Algos. It aims to foster the creation of easily testable, re-usable and flexible blocks of strategy logic to facilitate the rapid development of complex trading strategies.

The goal: to save quants from re-inventing the wheel and let them focus on the important part of the job - strategy development.

bt is coded in Python and joins a vibrant and rich ecosystem for data analysis. Numerous libraries exist for machine learning, signal processing and statistics and can be leveraged to avoid re-inventing the wheel - something that happens all too often when using other languages that don’t have the same wealth of high-quality, open-source projects.

bt is built atop ffn - a financial function library for Python. Check it out!

A Quick Example

Here is a quick taste of bt:

import bt
%matplotlib inline

A Simple Strategy Backtest

Let’s create a simple strategy. We will create a monthly rebalanced, long-only strategy where we place equal weights on each asset in our universe of assets.

First, we will download some data. By default, bt.get (alias for ffn.get) downloads the Adjusted Close from Yahoo! Finance. We will download some data starting on January 1, 2010 for the purposes of this demo.

# fetch some data
data = bt.get('spy,agg', start='2010-01-01')
                   spy        agg
 2010-01-04  89.225410  74.942825
 2010-01-05  89.461586  75.283791
 2010-01-06  89.524574  75.240227
 2010-01-07  89.902473  75.153221
 2010-01-08  90.201691  75.196724

Once we have our data, we will create our strategy. The Strategy object contains the strategy logic by combining various Algos.

# create the strategy
s = bt.Strategy('s1', [bt.algos.RunMonthly(),

Finally, we will create a Backtest, which is the logical combination of a strategy with a data set.

Once this is done, we can run the backtest and analyze the results.

# create a backtest and run it
test = bt.Backtest(s, data)
res =

Now we can analyze the results of our backtest. The Result object is a thin wrapper around ffn.GroupStats that adds some helper methods.

# first let's see an equity curve
# ok and what about some stats?
 Stat                 s1
 -------------------  ----------
 Start                2010-01-03
 End                  2022-07-01
 Risk-free rate       0.00%

 Total Return         150.73%
 Daily Sharpe         0.90
 Daily Sortino        1.35
 CAGR                 7.64%
 Max Drawdown         -18.42%
 Calmar Ratio         0.41

 MTD                  0.18%
 3m                   -10.33%
 6m                   -14.84%
 YTD                  -14.84%
 1Y                   -10.15%
 3Y (ann.)            5.12%
 5Y (ann.)            6.44%
 10Y (ann.)           7.36%
 Since Incep. (ann.)  7.64%

 Daily Sharpe         0.90
 Daily Sortino        1.35
 Daily Mean (ann.)    7.74%
 Daily Vol (ann.)     8.62%
 Daily Skew           -0.98
 Daily Kurt           16.56
 Best Day             4.77%
 Worst Day            -6.63%

 Monthly Sharpe       1.06
 Monthly Sortino      1.91
 Monthly Mean (ann.)  7.81%
 Monthly Vol (ann.)   7.36%
 Monthly Skew         -0.39
 Monthly Kurt         1.59
 Best Month           7.57%
 Worst Month          -6.44%

 Yearly Sharpe        0.81
 Yearly Sortino       1.75
 Yearly Mean          7.48%
 Yearly Vol           9.17%
 Yearly Skew          -1.34
 Yearly Kurt          2.28
 Best Year            19.64%
 Worst Year           -14.84%

 Avg. Drawdown        -0.84%
 Avg. Drawdown Days   13.23
 Avg. Up Month        1.70%
 Avg. Down Month      -1.80%
 Win Year %           83.33%
 Win 12m %            93.57%
# ok and how does the return distribution look like?
# and just to make sure everything went along as planned, let's plot the security weights over time

Modifying a Strategy

Now what if we ran this strategy weekly and also used some risk parity style approach by using weights that are proportional to the inverse of each asset’s volatility? Well, all we have to do is plug in some different algos. See below:

# create our new strategy
s2 = bt.Strategy('s2', [bt.algos.RunWeekly(),

# now let's test it with the same data set. We will also compare it with our first backtest.
test2 = bt.Backtest(s2, data)
# we include test here to see the results side-by-side
res2 =, test2)

 Stat                 s1          s2
 -------------------  ----------  ----------
 Start                2010-01-03  2010-01-03
 End                  2022-07-01  2022-07-01
 Risk-free rate       0.00%       0.00%

 Total Return         150.73%     69.58%
 Daily Sharpe         0.90        0.96
 Daily Sortino        1.35        1.41
 CAGR                 7.64%       4.32%
 Max Drawdown         -18.42%     -14.62%
 Calmar Ratio         0.41        0.30

 MTD                  0.18%       0.38%
 3m                   -10.33%     -6.88%
 6m                   -14.84%     -12.00%
 YTD                  -14.84%     -12.00%
 1Y                   -10.15%     -10.03%
 3Y (ann.)            5.12%       1.84%
 5Y (ann.)            6.44%       3.35%
 10Y (ann.)           7.36%       3.76%
 Since Incep. (ann.)  7.64%       4.32%

 Daily Sharpe         0.90        0.96
 Daily Sortino        1.35        1.41
 Daily Mean (ann.)    7.74%       4.33%
 Daily Vol (ann.)     8.62%       4.50%
 Daily Skew           -0.98       -2.21
 Daily Kurt           16.56       46.12
 Best Day             4.77%       2.84%
 Worst Day            -6.63%      -4.66%

 Monthly Sharpe       1.06        1.13
 Monthly Sortino      1.91        1.87
 Monthly Mean (ann.)  7.81%       4.40%
 Monthly Vol (ann.)   7.36%       3.89%
 Monthly Skew         -0.39       -1.06
 Monthly Kurt         1.59        3.92
 Best Month           7.57%       4.05%
 Worst Month          -6.44%      -5.04%

 Yearly Sharpe        0.81        0.65
 Yearly Sortino       1.75        1.19
 Yearly Mean          7.48%       4.13%
 Yearly Vol           9.17%       6.31%
 Yearly Skew          -1.34       -1.48
 Yearly Kurt          2.28        3.37
 Best Year            19.64%      11.71%
 Worst Year           -14.84%     -12.00%

 Avg. Drawdown        -0.84%      -0.48%
 Avg. Drawdown Days   13.23       13.68
 Avg. Up Month        1.70%       0.90%
 Avg. Down Month      -1.80%      -0.93%
 Win Year %           83.33%      83.33%
 Win 12m %            93.57%      91.43%

As you can see, the strategy logic is easy to understand and more importantly, easy to modify. The idea of using simple, composable Algos to create strategies is one of the core building blocks of bt.


  • Tree Structure

    The tree structure facilitates the construction and composition of complex algorithmic trading strategies that are modular and re-usable. Furthermore, each tree Node has its own price index that can be used by Algos to determine a Node’s allocation.

  • Algorithm Stacks

    Algos and AlgoStacks are another core feature that facilitate the creation of modular and re-usable strategy logic. Due to their modularity, these logic blocks are also easier to test - an important step in building robust financial solutions.

  • Transaction Cost Modeling

    Through the use of a commission function and instrument-specific, time-varying bid/offer spreads passed to the Backtest.

  • Fixed Income

    Strategies can include coupon-paying instruments such as bonds, unfunded instruments such as swaps, holding costs, and the option for notional weighting. These are extensions of the tree structure.

  • Charting and Reporting

    bt also provides many useful charting functions that help visualize backtest results. We also plan to add more charts, tables and report formats in the future, such as automatically generated PDF reports.

  • Detailed Statistics

    Furthermore, bt calculates a bunch of stats relating to a backtest and offers a quick way to compare these various statistics across many different backtests via Results' display methods.


Future development efforts will focus on:

  • Speed

    Due to the flexible nature of bt, a trade-off had to be made between usability and performance. Usability will always be the priority, but we do wish to enhance the performance as much as possible.

  • Algos

    We will also be developing more algorithms as time goes on. We also encourage anyone to contribute their own algos as well.

  • Charting and Reporting

    This is another area we wish to constantly improve on as reporting is an important aspect of the job. Charting and reporting also facilitate finding bugs in strategy logic.